Logical Deduction

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Logical Deduction is reasoning which create or evaluate deductive arguments. The deductive arguments are attempts to show that a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of premises. The deductive argument is valid if the conclusion does follow necessarily from the premises i.e. the conclusion will be true provided if the premises are true. But both premises and conclusions are important and both are not essential components of any argument.

 

Directions:

Study the statements and the two conclusions and give answer

If only conclusion I follows

If only conclusion II follows

If either conclusion I or II follow

If neither I nor II follows

If both I and II conclusion follows

Questions:

1. Statement

A)    Vegetables prices are soaring in the market.

B)    Conclusions

C)    Vegetables are becoming a rare commodity.

D)    People cannot eat vegetables

View Answer

Answer: option (D)

Explanation:

 Conclusion I do not follow because the availability of vegetables is not mentioned in the given statement.

Conclusion II is not directly related to the statement and so it also does not follow.

Hence, neither I nor II follows.

 2. Statement

A)    Fortune favours the brave.

B)    Conclusions

C)    Risks are necessary for success.

D)    Cowards die many times before their death.

View Answer

Answer: option (A)

Explanation:

According to the statement, only those who face situations boldly and bravely achieve success. So, I follows.


Conclusion II is vague with regard to the given statement and so does not follow.

3. Statement

A)    Some engineers are fools. Some fools are poor.

B)    Conclusion

C)    Some engineers are poor.

D)    Some poor are engineers.

View Answer

Answer: option (D)

Explanation:

As both the premises are particular in statement so, no it does not follows any definite conclusion

4. Statement

A)    All lemons are yellow in color. No yellow-colored things are rich.

B)    Conclusion

C)    All lemons are rich.

D)    Yellow-colored lemons are not rich.

View Answer

Answer: option (B)

Explanation:

The conclusion must be negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘No lemon is rich’. Since all lemons are yellow in color, we may alternate ‘lemons’ with ‘yellow-colored lemons’. Therefore, II follows

5. Statement

A)    All streets are pillars. No pillar is a home.

B)    Conclusion

C)    Some streets are homes.

D)    Some homes are pillars.

View Answer

Answer: option (D)

Explanation:

In this, as both the premises are universal but one premise is negative so, the conclusion must be universal negative. So, neither I nor II follows.

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