C – String


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  • C Strings are nothing but array of characters ended with null character (‘\0’).
  • This null character indicates the end of the string.
  • Strings are always enclosed by double quotes. Whereas, character is enclosed by single quotes in C.

Example for C string:

    • char string[20] = { ‘f’ , ’r’ , ‘e’ , ‘s’ , ‘h’ , ‘2’ , ‘r’ , ‘e’ , ‘f’ , ’r’ , ‘e’ , ‘s’ , ‘h’ , ‘\0’}; (or)
    • char string[20] = “fresh2refresh”; (or)
    • char string []    = “fresh2refresh”;
  • Difference between above declarations are, when we declare char as “string[20]“, 20 bytes of memory space is allocated for holding the string value.
  • When we declare char as “string[]“, memory space will be allocated as per the requirement during execution of the program.

Example program for C string:

#include <stdio.h>

int main ()
{
   char string[20] = "fresh2refresh.com";

   printf("The string is : %s \n", string );
   return 0;
}

Output:

The string is : fresh2refresh.com

C String functions:

    • String.h header file supports all the string functions in C language. All the string functions are given below.
    • Click on each string function name below for detail description and example programs.
S.no
String functions
Description
1 strcat ( )  Concatenates str2 at the end of str1.
2 strncat ( )  appends a portion of string to another
3 strcpy ( )  Copies str2 into str1
4 strncpy ( )  copies given number of characters of one string to another
5 strlen ( )  gives the length of str1.
6 strcmp ( )  Returns 0 if str1 is same as str2. Returns <0 if strl < str2. Returns >0 if str1 > str2.
7 strcmpi_(.)  Same as strcmp() function. But, this function negotiates case.  “A” and “a” are treated as same.
8 strchr ( )  Returns pointer to first occurrence of char in str1.
9 strrchr ( )  last occurrence of given character in a string is found
10 strstr ( )  Returns pointer to first occurrence of str2 in str1.
11 strrstr ( )  Returns pointer to last occurrence of str2 in str1.
12 strdup ( )  duplicates the string
13 strlwr ( )  converts string to lowercase
14 strupr ( )  converts string to uppercase
15 strrev ( )  reverses the given string
16 strset ( )  sets all character in a string to given character
17 strnset ( )  It sets the portion of characters in a string to given character
18 strtok ( )  tokenizing given string using delimiter

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