1. What is C language?
- C language is a structure/procedure oriented, middle level programming language developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie.
- C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system.
- In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language”.
- Also, C language is an ANSI/ISO standard and powerful programming language for developing real time applications
2. Who developed C language?
C programming language was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie.
3. Describe about history of C programming language.
- C programming language is a structure oriented programming language, was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie
- C language features were derived from earlier language called “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)
- In earlier days, programs were written in assembly level language. So, it had happened to write very big programs to perform specific tasks using assembly code.
- But, ‘B’ language could perform the same task in few lines of program and it was faster than assemble language code.
- But, B language did not support some features like data types and structures etc. So, this was a drawback of B language. So, Dennis Ritchie developed C language by keeping most part of the B language and adding many features that produced powerful and effective outputs.
- So, C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system. Most of the UNIX components were rewritten in C.
- In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C
- In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late 1988.
- C89/C90 standard – First standardized specification for C language was developed by American National Standards Institute in 1989. C89 and C90 standards refer to the same programming language.
- C99 standard – Next revision was published in 1999 that introduced new futures like advanced data types and other changes.
- C11 standard adds new features to C and library like type generic macros, anonymous structures, improved Unicode support, atomic operations, multi-threading, and bounds-checked functions. It also makes some portions of the existing C99 library optional, and improves compatibility with C++.
- Embedded C includes features not available in normal C like fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.